Simulating the Post-gastric Bypass Intestinal Microenvironment Uncovers a Barrier-Stabilizing Role for FXR
M. K. Hankir; T. Langseder; E. E. Bankoglu; Y. Ghoreishi; U. Dischinger; M. Kurlbaum; M. Kroiss; C. Otto; C. W. le Roux; T. Arora; F. Seyfried; N. Schlegel
Year of publication
Regional changes to the intestinal microenvironment brought about by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery may contribute to some of its potent systemic metabolic benefits through favorably regulating various local cellular processes. Here, we show that the intestinal contents of RYGB-operated compared with sham-operated rats region-dependently confer superior glycemic control to recipient germ-free mice in association with suppression of endotoxemia. Correspondingly, they had direct barrier-stabilizing effects on an intestinal epithelial cell line which, bile-exposed intestinal contents, were partly farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-dependent. Further, circulating fibroblast growth factor 19 levels, a readout of intestinal FXR activation, negatively correlated with endotoxemia severity in longitudinal cohort of RYGB patients. These findings suggest that various host- and/or microbiota-derived luminal factors region-specifically and synergistically stabilize the intestinal epithelial barrier following RYGB through FXR signaling, which could potentially be leveraged to better treat endotoxemia-induced insulin resistance in obesity in a non-invasive and more targeted manner.