Proteome from patients with metabolic syndrome is regulated by quantity and quality of dietary lipids
O. A. Rangel-Zúñiga; A. Camargo; C. Marin; P. Peña-Orihuela; P. Pérez-Martínez; J. Delgado-Lista; L. González-Guardia; E. M. Yubero-Serrano; F. J. Tinahones; M. M. Malagón; F. Pérez-Jiménez; H. M. Roche; J. López-Miranda
Year of publication
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a multi-component disorder associated to a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Its etiology is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors, including dietary habits. We aimed to identify the target proteins modulated by the long-term consumption of four diets differing in the quality and quantity of lipids in the whole proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). RESULTS: A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned 24 MetS patients for 12 weeks each to 1 of 4 diets: a) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA), b) high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA), c) low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with placebo (LFHCC) and d) low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with long chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (LFHCC n-3). We analyzed the changes induced in the proteome of both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of PBMC using 2-D proteomic analysis. Sixty-seven proteins were differentially expressed after the long-term consumption of the four diets. The HSFA diet induced the expression of proteins responding to oxidative stress, degradation of ubiquitinated proteins and DNA repair. However, HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 diets down-regulated pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress-related proteins and DNA repairing proteins. CONCLUSION: The long-term consumption of HSFA, compared to HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3, seems to increase the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, and seem lead to DNA damage as a consequence of high oxidative stress.