Glial A(2B) Adenosine Receptors Modulate Abnormal Tachykininergic Responses and Prevent Enteric Inflammation Associated with High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity
V. D'Antongiovanni; L. Benvenuti; M. Fornai; C. Pellegrini; R. van den Wijngaard; S. Cerantola; M. C. Giron; V. Caputi; R. Colucci; G. Haskó; Z. H. Németh; C. Blandizzi; L. Antonioli
Year of publication
The role played by adenosine A(2B) receptors (A(2B)Rs) in the regulation of enteric glial cell (EGC) functions remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of A(2B)Rs in the control of EGC functions in a model of obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed with standard diet (SD) or high fat diet (HFD) for eight weeks. Colonic tachykininergic contractions were recorded in the presence of BAY60-6583 (A(2B)Rs agonist), MRS1754 (A(2B)Rs antagonist), and the gliotoxin fluorocitrate. Immunofluorescence distribution of HuC/D, S100β, and A(2B)Rs was assessed in whole mount preparations of colonic myenteric plexus. To mimic HFD, EGCs were incubated in vitro with palmitate (PA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the absence or in the presence of A(2B)R ligands. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was assessed by Western blot analysis. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), substance P (SP), and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) release were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. MRS1754 enhanced electrically evoked tachykininergic contractions of colonic preparations from HFD mice. BAY60-6583 decreased the evoked tachykininergic contractions, with higher efficacy in HFD mice. Such effects were blunted upon incubation with fluorocitrate. In in vitro experiments on EGCs, PA and LPS increased TLR4 expression as well as IL-1β, GDNF, and SP release. Incubation with BAY60-6583 reduced TLR4 expression as well as IL-1β, GDNF, and SP release. Such effects were blunted by MRS1754. The present results suggest that A(2B)Rs, expressed on EGCs, participate in the modulation of enteric inflammation and altered tachykininergic responses associated with obesity, thus representing a potential therapeutic target.