Endurance exercise training programs intestinal lipid metabolism in a rat model of obesity and type 2 diabetes
Y. H. Hung; M. A. Linden; A. Gordon; R. S. Rector; K. K. Buhman
Year of publication
Endurance exercise has been shown to improve metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the physiological and molecular mechanisms for these benefits are not completely understood. Although endurance exercise has been shown to decrease lipogenesis, promote fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and increase mitochondrial biosynthesis in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver, its effects on intestinal lipid metabolism remain unknown. The absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, mediate the highly efficient absorption and processing of nutrients, including dietary fat for delivery throughout the body. We investigated how endurance exercise altered intestinal lipid metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. We assessed mRNA levels of genes associated with intestinal lipid metabolism in nonhyperphagic, sedentary Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (L-Sed), hyperphagic, sedentary OLETF rats (O-Sed), and endurance exercised OLETF rats (O-EndEx). O-Sed rats developed hyperphagia-induced obesity (HIO) and type 2 diabetes compared with L-Sed rats. O-EndEx rats gained significantly less weight and fat pad mass, and had improved serum metabolic parameters without change in food consumption compared to O-Sed rats. Endurance exercise resulted in dramatic up-regulation of a number of genes in intestinal lipid metabolism and mitochondrial content compared with sedentary rats. Overall, this study provides evidence that endurance exercise programs intestinal lipid metabolism, likely contributing to its role in improving metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes.