Dietary fat modifies lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients
A. Camargo; M. E. Meneses; P. Pérez-Martínez; J. Delgado-Lista; O. A. Rangel-Zúñiga; C. Marín; Y. Almadén; E. M. Yubero-Serrano; L. González-Guardia; F. Fuentes; F. J. Tinahones; H. M. Roche; M. M. Malagón; F. Pérez-Jiménez; J. López-Miranda
Year of publication
Genes and Nutrition
Adipose tissue (AT) is a key organ in the regulation of total body lipid homeostasis, which is responsible for the storage and release of fatty acids according to metabolic needs. We aimed to investigate the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on the lipogenesis and lipolysis processes in the AT of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets: (a) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA) (b) high-monounsaturated fatty acid, and (c, d) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with long chain (LC) n-3 (LFHCC n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention. Long-term consumption of the LFHCC diet induced an increase in the fasting expression levels of the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase D9-desaturase genes, whereas the supplementation of this diet with n-3 PUFA reversed this effect (p = 0.007). In contrast, long-term consumption of the HSFA diet increased the expression of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene, at both fasting and postprandial states (both, p < 0.001). Our results showed the anti-lipogenic effect exerted by LC n-3 PUFA when administered together with a LFHCC diet. Conversely, a diet high in saturated fat increased the expression of the lipolytic gene ATGL relative to the other diets. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.