Correlative study on impaired prostaglandin E2 regulation in epicardial adipose tissue and its role in maladaptive cardiac remodeling via EPAC2 and ST2 signaling in overweight cardiovascular disease subjects

Type Article

Journal Article


E. Vianello; E. Dozio; F. Bandera; M. Froldi; E. Micaglio; J. Lamont; L. Tacchini; G. Schmitz; M. M. C. Romanelli

Year of publication



International Journal of Molecular Sciences







There is recent evidence that the dysfunctional responses of a peculiar visceral fat deposit known as epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) can directly promote cardiac enlargement in the case of obesity. Here, we observed a newer molecular pattern associated with LV dysfunction mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) deregulation in EAT in a cardiovascular disease (CVD) population. A series of 33 overweight CVD males were enrolled and their EAT thickness, LV mass, and volumes were measured by echocardiography. Blood, plasma, EAT, and SAT biopsies were collected for molecular and proteomic assays. Our data show that PGE2 biosynthetic enzyme (PTGES-2) correlates with echocardiographic parameters of LV enlargement: LV diameters, LV end diastolic volume, and LV masses. Moreover, PTGES-2 is directly associated with EPAC2 gene (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001), known as a molecular inducer of ST2/IL-33 mediators involved in maladaptive heart remodelling. Furthermore, PGE2 receptor 3 (PTEGER3) results are downregulated and its expression is inversely associated with ST2/IL-33 expression. Contrarily, PGE2 receptor 4 (PTGER4) is upregulated in EAT and directly correlates with ST2 molecular expression. Our data suggest that excessive body fatness can shift the EAT transcriptome to a pro-tissue remodelling profile, may be driven by PGE2 deregulation, with consequent promotion of EPAC2 and ST2 signalling.