Associations between dietary patterns, FTO genotype and obesity in adults from seven European countries
K. M. Livingstone; B. Brayner; C. Celis-Morales; G. Moschonis; Y. Manios; I. Traczyk; C. A. Drevon; H. Daniel; W. H. M. Saris; J. A. Lovegrove; M. Gibney; E. R. Gibney; L. Brennan; J. A. Martinez; J. C. Mathers
Year of publication
Eur J Nutr
PURPOSE: High-fat and low-fibre discretionary food intake and FTO genotype are each associated independently with higher risk of obesity. However, few studies have investigated links between obesity and dietary patterns based on discretionary food intake, and the interaction effect of FTO genotype are unknown. Thus, this study aimed to derive dietary patterns based on intake of discretionary foods, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and fibre, and examine cross-sectional associations with BMI and waist circumference (WC), and interaction effects of FTO genotype. METHODS: Baseline data on 1280 adults from seven European countries were included (the Food4Me study). Dietary intake was estimated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Reduced rank regression was used to derive three dietary patterns using response variables of discretionary foods, SFA and fibre density. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs. Anthropometrics were self-measured. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and BMI and WC, with an interaction for FTO genotype. RESULTS: Dietary pattern 1 (positively correlated with discretionary foods and SFA, and inversely correlated with fibre) was associated with higher BMI (β:0.64; 95% CI 0.44, 0.84) and WC (β:1.58; 95% CI 1.08, 2.07). There was limited evidence dietary pattern 2 (positively correlated with discretionary foods and SFA) and dietary pattern 3 (positively correlated with SFA and fibre) were associated with anthropometrics. FTO risk genotype was associated with higher BMI and WC, with no evidence of a dietary interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming a dietary pattern low in discretionary foods and high-SFA and low-fibre foods is likely to be important for maintaining a healthy weight, regardless of FTO predisposition to obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139. Registered 9 February 2012 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01530139.