Younger and older ages and obesity are associated with energy intake underreporting but not overreporting in Japanese boys and girls aged 1-19 years: the National Health and Nutrition Survey

Type Article

Journal Article


K. Murakami; M. B. E. Livingstone; H. Okubo; S. Sasaki

Year of publication



Nutr Res








Evidence on the magnitude and nature of misreporting of food intake in non-Western children and adolescents is sparse. We investigated the hypothesis that under- and overreporting of energy intake (EI) is prevalent and associated with some characteristics in 3866 Japanese boys and girls aged 1-19 years using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Each individual's EI was calculated based on a 1-day semiweighed household dietary record, including information on approximate proportions by which each dish was divided among the family members. Under-, acceptable, and overreporters of EI were identified by 2 methods: based on the 95% confidence limits (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI to basal metabolic rate (BMR) and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1.55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI to estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1.0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming low active" level of physical activity. Percentages of under-, acceptable, and overreporters were 2.4%, 97.0%, and 0.5%, respectively, based on EI/BMR and 3.2%, 95.4%, and 1.4%, respectively, based on EI/EER. Underreporting was associated with the youngest (1-5 years) and oldest (15-19 years) age groups and with obesity. Overreporting was not associated with any of the variables examined. In conclusion, although overall mean EI obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan seemed plausible in Japanese boys and girls, younger and older ages and obesity were associated with EI underreporting but not overreporting."