The role of inflammation in cancer of the esophagus
K. E. O'Sullivan; J. J. Phelan; C. O'Hanlon; J. Lysaght; J. N. O'Sullivan; J. V. Reynolds
Year of publication
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy worldwide. The overall prognosis is poor, with 5-year survival ranges of approximately 15-25%, and 30-50% for patients who can be treated with curative intent. There has been a marked increase in incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma over the last 30 years, with chronic and severe reflux, diet and obesity identified as principal factors fuelling this rise in the West. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is an exemplar model of an inflammation-associated cancer. The key molecular pathways driving tumor development and influencing tumor biology are the subject of considerable research efforts, and is the principal focus of this review. In addition, the diverse range of changes occurring in the local immune response, tissue microenvironment, metabolic profile, intracellular signaling mechanisms and microRNA signatures are discussed, as well as novel targeted therapies.