The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women with overweight or obesity on early childhood outcomes: an individual participant data meta-analysis from randomised trials
J. Louise; A. J. Poprzeczny; A. R. Deussen; C. Vinter; M. Tanvig; D. M. Jensen; A. Bogaerts; R. Devlieger; F. M. McAuliffe; K. M. Renault; E. Carlsen; N. Geiker; L. Poston; A. Briley; S. Thangaratinam; J. M. Dodd
Year of publication
BACKGROUND: The impact of maternal obesity extends beyond birth, being independently associated with an increased risk of child obesity. Current evidence demonstrates that women provided with a dietary intervention during pregnancy improve their dietary quality and have a modest reduction in gestational weight gain. However, the effect of this on longer-term childhood obesity-related outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis from RCTs in which women with a singleton, live gestation between 10(+0) and 20(+0) weeks and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2) in early pregnancy were randomised to a diet and/or lifestyle intervention or continued standard antenatal care and in which longer-term maternal and child follow-up at 3-5 years of age had been undertaken. The primary childhood outcome was BMI z-score above the 90th percentile. Secondary childhood outcomes included skinfold thickness measurements and body circumferences, fat-free mass, dietary and physical activity patterns, blood pressure, and neurodevelopment. RESULTS: Seven primary trials where follow-up of participants occurred were identified by a systematic literature search within the International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) Collaborative Group collaboration, with six providing individual participant data. No additional studies were identified after a systematic literature search. A total of 2529 children and 2383 women contributed data. Approximately 30% of all child participants had a BMI z-score above the 90th percentile, with no significant difference between the intervention and control groups (aRR 0.97; 95% CI 0.87, 1.08; p=0.610). There were no statistically significant differences identified for any of the secondary outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: In overweight and obese pregnant women, we found no evidence that maternal dietary and/or lifestyle intervention during pregnancy modifies the risk of early childhood obesity. Future research may need to target the pre-conception period in women and early childhood interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42016047165.