The Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Urinary Incontinence in Women
C. J. O'Boyle; O. E. O'Sullivan; H. Shabana; M. Boyce; B. A. O'Reilly
Year of publication
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the effect of bariatric surgery on urinary incontinence. METHODS: Between September 2008 and November 2014, 240 female patients underwent bariatric surgery. RESULTS: The prevalence of urinary incontinence preoperatively was 45 % (108). Eighty-two (76 %) completed urinary function questionnaires pre-operatively and post-operatively. Fifty-seven (70 %) underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass, twenty-four (29 %) underwent sleeve gastrectomy and one underwent a banding procedure. Thirty-one (38 %) reported leaking on sneezing or coughing-stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Thirteen (16 %) complained of leaking before reaching the toilet-overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). The remaining thirty-eight (46 %) reported mixed symptoms. The mean pre-operative weight and BMI were 133 (18) kg and 50 (SD = 6.2) kg/m(2) respectively. The mean post-operative BMI drop was 16 (SD = 5.2) kg/m(2). Preoperatively, 61 (75 %) reported moderate to very severe urinary incontinence compared to 30 (37 %) post-operatively (χ (2) = 3.24.67, p = 0.050). Twenty-seven (33 %) patients reported complete resolution of their urinary incontinence. Fifty-one (62 %) patients required incontinence pads on a daily basis pre-operatively, compared to 35 (43 %) post-operatively (χ (2) = 22.211.6, p = 0.00). The mean International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire- Urinary Incontinence short form (ICIQ-UI SF) score was 9.3 (SD = 4.4) pre-operatively compared to 4.9 (SD = 5.3) post-operatively (t = 7.2, p = 0.000). The improvement score post-operatively was 8 (SD = 3). A significant difference in the ICIQ-UI SF was identified between OAB and SUI groups when adjusting for age, number of children, type of delivery and pre-op BMI (t = 1.98, p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery results in a clinically significant improvement in urinary incontinence. However, this is not proportional to pre-operative BMI, weight loss, age, parity and mode of delivery.