Precision nutrition for targeting pathophysiology of cardiometabolic phenotypes
Shannon CE, Ní Chathail MB, Mullin SM, Meehan A, McGillicuddy FC, Roche HM.
Year of publication
Rev Endocr Metab Disord
Obesity is a heterogenous disease accompanied by a broad spectrum of cardiometabolic risk profiles. Traditional paradigms for dietary weight management do not address biological heterogeneity between individuals and have catastrophically failed to combat the global pandemic of obesity-related diseases. Nutritional strategies that extend beyond basic weight management to instead target patient-specific pathophysiology are warranted. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the tissue-level pathophysiological processes that drive patient heterogeneity to shape distinct cardiometabolic phenotypes in obesity. Specifically, we discuss how divergent physiology and postprandial phenotypes can reveal key metabolic defects within adipose, liver, or skeletal muscle, as well as the integrative involvement of the gut microbiome and the innate immune system. Finally, we highlight potential precision nutritional approaches to target these pathways and discuss recent translational evidence concerning the efficacy of such tailored dietary interventions for different obesity phenotypes, to optimise cardiometabolic benefits.