Pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome
E. McCracken; M. Monaghan; S. Sreenivasan
Year of publication
The metabolic syndrome-otherwise called syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven syndrome, and the deadly quartet"-is the name given to the aggregate of clinical conditions comprising central and abdominal obesity, systemic hypertension, insulin resistance (or type 2 diabetes mellitus), and atherogenic dyslipidemia. It is a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state characterized by increased inflammatory cytokine activity. In addition to inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, lichen planus, and hidradenitis suppurativa, metabolic syndrome is also commonly associated with accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, hyperuricemia/gout, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Current therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome are limited to individual treatments for hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as dietary control measures and regular exercise."