Link Between Increased Satiety Gut Hormones and Reduced Food Reward After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity
A. P. Goldstone; A. D. Miras; S. Scholtz; S. Jackson; K. J. Neff; L. Pénicaud; J. Geoghegan; N. Chhina; G. Durighel; J. D. Bell; S. Meillon; C. W. le Roux
Year of publication
J Clin Endocrinol Metab
CONTEXT: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective long-term intervention for weight loss maintenance, reducing appetite, and also food reward, via unclear mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of elevated satiety gut hormones after RYGB, we examined food hedonic-reward responses after their acute post-prandial suppression. DESIGN: These were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experimental medicine studies. PATIENTS: Two groups, more than 5 months after RYGB for obesity (n = 7-11), compared with nonobese controls (n = 10), or patients after gastric banding (BAND) surgery (n = 9) participated in the studies. INTERVENTION: Studies were performed after acute administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide or saline. In one study, patients after RYGB, and nonobese controls, performed a behavioral progressive ratio task for chocolate sweets. In another study, patients after RYGB, and controls after BAND surgery, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging food picture evaluation task. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Octreotide increased both appetitive food reward (breakpoint) in the progressive ratio task (n = 9), and food appeal (n = 9) and reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal (n = 7) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, in the RYGB group, but not in the control groups. RESULTS: Octreotide suppressed postprandial plasma peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, and fibroblast growth factor-19 after RYGB. The reduction in plasma peptide YY with octreotide positively correlated with the increase in brain reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal in RYGB/BAND subjects, with a similar trend for glucagon-like peptide-1. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced satiety gut hormone responses after RYGB may be a causative mechanism by which anatomical alterations of the gut in obesity surgery modify behavioral and brain reward responses to food.