Emerging therapeutic potential for xenin and related peptides in obesity and diabetes

Type Article

Journal Article


S. L. Craig; V. A. Gault; N. Irwin

Year of publication



Diabetes Metab Res Rev








Xenin-25 is a 25-amino acid peptide hormone co-secreted from the same enteroendocrine K-cell as the incretin peptide glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. There is no known specific receptor for xenin-25, but studies suggest that at least some biological actions may be mediated through interaction with the neurotensin receptor. Original investigation into the physiological significance of xenin-25 focussed on effects related to gastrointestinal transit and satiety. However, xenin-25 has been demonstrated in pancreatic islets and recently shown to possess actions in relation to the regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion, as well as promoting beta-cell survival. Accordingly, the beneficial impact of xenin-25, and related analogues, has been assessed in animal models of diabetes-obesity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that metabolically active fragment peptides of xenin-25, particularly xenin-8, possess independent therapeutic promise for diabetes, as well as serving as bioactive components for the generation of multi-acting hybrid peptides with antidiabetic potential. This review focuses on continuing developments with xenin compounds in relation to new therapeutic approaches for diabetes-obesity.