Dynapaenic obesity and its association with health outcomes in older adult populations: protocol for a systematic review

Type Article

Journal Article


S. Leahy; M. Cassarino; O. C. MD; L. Glynn; R. Galvin

Year of publication



BMJ Open








INTRODUCTION: Two major global health challenges are the rapidly ageing population and the high prevalence of obesity in all age groups. Older adults are also susceptible to age-related loss of muscle strength, termed dynapaenia. The co-occurrence of both obesity and dynapaenia, termed dynapaenic obesity (DO), has been associated with poorer health outcomes and increased healthcare usage compared with either state alone. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantify the prevalence and incidence of DO in older adult populations, and to explore the association between DO and health outcomes, specifically chronic disease and multimorbidity, functional disability and healthcare usage. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, we will conduct a systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies of older adults, which include measures of DO and specified outcomes. Detailed literature searches of will be conducted using six electronic databases: Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ScienceDirect and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Complete (CINAHL), including articles published from database inception until Febuary 2019. The reference lists of included articles will also be searched. Two independent reviewers will undertake a three-step screening and review process using the Population, Risk Factor, Outcome framework to define eligibility. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomised studies will be used to assess risk of bias and to rate study quality. The findings will be synthesised in a narrative summary, and a meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this systematic review. Findings from this research will be submitted for peer-reviewed publication in academic journals, and presented at relevant academic conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018112471.