Do Gut Hormones Contribute to Weight Loss and Glycaemic Outcomes after Bariatric Surgery?
D. Papamargaritis; C. W. le Roux
Year of publication
Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention for management of obesity through treating dysregulated appetite and achieving long-term weight loss maintenance. Moreover, significant changes in glucose homeostasis are observed after bariatric surgery including, in some cases, type 2 diabetes remission from the early postoperative period and postprandial hypoglycaemia. Levels of a number of gut hormones are dramatically increased from the early period after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy-the two most commonly performed bariatric procedures-and they have been suggested as important mediators of the observed changes in eating behaviour and glucose homeostasis postoperatively. In this review, we summarise the current evidence from human studies on the alterations of gut hormones after bariatric surgery and their impact on clinical outcomes postoperatively. Studies which assess the role of gut hormones after bariatric surgery on food intake, hunger, satiety and glucose homeostasis through octreotide use (a non-specific inhibitor of gut hormone secretion) as well as with exendin 9-39 (a specific glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor antagonist) are reviewed. The potential use of gut hormones as biomarkers of successful outcomes of bariatric surgery is also evaluated.